Arteriovenous hemangioma (malformations) is a benign acquired cutaneous
vascular lesion and is characterized by a complex network of intercommunicating arterial and
The etiology of arteriovenous hemangioma is uncertain; endocrine and inflammatory stimuli may activate an underlying
vascular malformation. Some lesions, especially those in younger patients,
may be true hamartomas.
proportionately with the patient; do not involute; and may sometimes
increase in size because of vascular ectasia induced by conditions such as
sepsis, trauma, puberty, and pregnancy.
are divided into types according to the depth of involvement:
1. Deep form:
May be associated with arteriovenous shunting
and soft tissue hypertrophy.
adults and adolescents.
Commonly affect the head, neck and lower extremity.
Can present with
severe symptoms of heart failure or Kasabach Merritt syndrome.
This form of hemangioma
may be difficult to diagnose.
Clinicopathologic correlation with arteriographic studies is essential in
establishing the diagnosis.
form: (cirsoid aneurysm or acral arteriovenous tumour)
Age: Middle aged and elderly adults.
Site: Usually affect the head and neck region. These are often localized to the
dermis and submucosa of the lips and perioral skin.
reddish blue papule. Symptoms are mild and include pain and intermittent
are thick and thin-walled sized arteries and veins in close association with
Focally, some tumours resemble capillary and cavernous
There may be focal
thrombosis, secondary dystrophic calcification and mild inflammation.
Serial sections are
helpful in demonstrating continuities or shunts between arteries and veins.
Pathologists rely on elastic stains for making a
definitive diagnosis of arteriovenous malformations, because arteries and arterioles (with elastic lamina in their walls) are an integral part of Arteriovenous malformations .
These lesions grow slowly
and achieve only a small size and are usually cured by simple excision.