Features of Normal Esophageal
epithelium is stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium
- Basal layer
( polygonal or cuboidal cells) is one to four cell thick and account for
15% of its thickness. It is thickest at distal 2 - 3 cm of squamous
mucosa adjacent to Z-line.
- Z-line is
the squamocolumnar junction which is histologically irregular. The
glandular epithelium lying higher than squamous mucosa. The lower
esophageal sphincter is located in this area.
markers for Barrett's esophagus and associations to esophageal Z-line
and neuroendocrine cells may be found in the basal layer.
- The lamina
propria consists of loose connective tissue. Mucous glands (esophageal
cardiac glands) are present in the distal part of the esophagus.
connective tissue papillae can indent the lamina propria as far as
2/3rd into mucosal thickness.
mucosae is thicker in the esophagus than in any other part of the gut.
- At the
esophagogastric junction gastric type glands are branched and divided
into groups by smooth muscle fibres. Most of the cells are mucus
secreting. Glands near the esophagogastric junction also contain
parietal cells,chief cells and endocrine cells.
mucous glands are present throughout its length.