Assessment of the biopsy :
Type of mucosa included in the biopsy. In gastritis, antral and corpus biopsies are to
be assessed separately.
Normal or Abnormal
or Diffuse lesion
(ie. involve surface epithelium, glandular component or stroma., or all
i) Type (acute, chronic, mixed, lymphocytic,
ii) Site (surface epithelium, pits, stroma,
Present or absent
- Presence of gastritis >
Ratio of stroma to glands >
Normal or abnormal
Ratio altered due to i) too much stroma
ii) loss of normal mucosal component iii) due to increased cellularity.
Expansion of mucosa
i) pit expansion, ii) glandular expansion,
iii) expansion by inflammatory infiltrate, iv) abnormal cellular
Distortion of glands
Note whether the glands are lined up parallel to each other . Branching
and irregularity noted in chemical gastritis & Menetrier's disease.
Intestinal, pyloric, pancreatic , ciliated
> Normal or abnormal
Abnormal features: Vascular ectasia in
chemical gastritis, thrombosed, thickened, atypical features, tumour emboli.
> Fungi, viral inclusions
> Further levels done to rule out dysplasia.
PAS- Highlight Candida albicans
or other fungi.
AB/PAS- Intestinal metaplasia is demonstratrated.
High iron diamine/alcian blue-
To classify the type of intestinal metaplasia on the basis of mucin
Cresyl fast violet, Gimenez, Giemsa, half Gram, toluidene blue, Warthin
- To demonstrate Helicobacter pylori
To demonstrate specific inclusions (CMV , herpes virus)
Anti H. pylori
Not used routinely. ( Used when organisms are few in number)