Cardiac Path Online

Specialist Training in Cardiac Pathology

 

                                                                                                                      

 

 

The main areas of interest are as follows:

1.  Congenital Heart Disease

2.  Adult  Cardiomyopathy

3.  Valvular Heart Disease    

4.  Ischaemic Heart Disease

5.  The Myocarditis

6.  Transplantation Pathology

 

1. Congenital Heart Disease :

- Learn how to examine the normal and abnormal heart (sequential- segmental approach);

*   write a full cardiac macroscopic report

*   learn how to present a case of congenital heart disease to clinicians

- Have an understanding of and have seen cases of common congenital abnormalities and their surgical correction;

*   total anomalous  pulmonary venous drainage

*   atrial septal defect (ASD)

*   ventricular septal defect (VSD)

*   transposition of the great vessels

*   Fallot's tetralogy

 - Understand the surgical procedures for correction of congenital cardiac abnormalities and the complications associated with;

*   cardiac bypass

*   bioprostheses

*   imaging

 

2. Adult Cardiomyopathy :

 - Learn how to examine the normal and abnormal heart , received as explants from transplant cases or post mortem specimens ;

*    write a full cardiac macroscopic report

*    learn how to present a case of cardiomyopathy to clinicians

- Have an understanding of common cardiomyopathies ;

*    hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

*    dilated cardiomyopathy

*    restrictive cardiomyopathy

*    histiocytoid cardiomyopathy

*    right ventricular dysplasia

*    idiopathic (giant cell) myocarditis

- Understand the role of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the diagnosis of myocardial disease ;

*    Understand the biopsy procedures and the number of biopsies required.

*    Learn the use of stains Hematoxylin and Eosin, EVG, trichromes , Pearl’s Prussian blue (PPB), Congo Red.

*    Know the common artifacts of EMB.

- Learn how to write a report on an EMB in a systematic fashion which includes endocardium, myocytes, interstitium, blood vessels.

- See endomyocardial biopsy from cases of ;

*   cardiac amyloid ; 

*   hemochromatosis ;

*   hypertrophic cardiomyopathy;

*   dilated cardiomyopathy.

 

3. Valvular Heart Disease :

-Learn how to examine the normal cardiac valves and 

measure them.

-Become familiar with the pathology of:

*    infective endocarditis,

*   calcific valvular disease,

*   post-inflammatory valve disease,

*   myxoid (‘floppy’) valve disease.

- Becomes familiar with the common valvular surgical procedures and their

complications.

 

4. Ischaemic Heart Disease :

- Learn how to examine the heart, received as explants

from transplant cases or postmortem specimens.

Particular attention should be paid to the following:

*   identifying and examine the coronary arteries.

*   selecting blocks for histology,

*   write a full cardiac macroscopic report,

*   learn how to present a case of IHD to clinicians.

- Learn how to dissect and report the histology of the

cardiac conducting system.

- Learn how to examine, sample for histology and

describe coronary artery bypass grafts.

- Have an understanding of ;

*    the histology of acute myocardial infarction (be able to ‘date’ an infarct),

*    the histology of chronic myocardial ischemia,

*    the histology of reperfusion injury,

*    the histology of coronary artery re-stenosis injury.

 

5. The Myocarditis :

- Understand the role of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)

in the diagnosis of myocarditis (Dallas criteria);

- See endomyocardial biopsies from cases of :

*   lymphocytic myocarditis,

*   granulomatous myocarditis,

*   eosinophilic myocarditis.

 

6. Transplantation Pathology:

-  Learn how to examine the explanted heart, sample blocks for histology and write

 a full cardiac macroscopic report.

-  Have an understanding of the surgical procedures used in cardiac

transplantation and their complications.

-  Know how the EMBs from transplant cases are prioratised and processed

for Hematoxylin and Eosin.

-  Understand when to request special stains.

-  Become familiar with the ISHLT grading system for acute cellular rejection

and its histology.

- Become familiar with the pathology of chronic rejection including cardiac ischaemia,

transplant associated graft coronary artery disease and transplant associated

lymphoproliferative disease.

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

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