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The exploration of the cardiovascular system has a history of at least 500 years.

The model of the heart and veins represented by Aristotle is one of the earliest and accurate descriptions of the cardiovascular system.

Aristotle explained why there may be a vascular tree composed of two vessels and also why these vessels must extend throughout the entire body. 

It is the early work of such scientists as Aristotle on which we base our current understanding of the cardiovascular system.


In this updated section on Cardiac Pathology I have given a brief outline on various aspects of cardiac diseases, including inflammatory, benign and malignant conditions. 

There are separate posts on practical reporting and  processing of endomyocardial biopsies and autopsy specimens.

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Hospital autopsies play a critical role in establishing the cause of death. Expert handling of heart specimen is an important part of pathology resident training. 

Several new diagrams, gross and microscopic images have been included.

More photographs and mock quiz cases will be added gradually as I continue to update every chapter.

There are links to many interesting peer-reviewed articles and excellent websites dealing with cardiovascular pathology.

Hope all medical professionals, pathology residents and those interested in cardiac pathology will enjoy this section.

For further information or comments you may contact me by e-mail.

Dr Sampurna Roy MD   












Cardiac Pathology - Specialist Training

Functional Anatomy of the Heart

Anatomy of the Atrium 

Anatomy of the Ventricle

Cardiac Conducting System

Anatomy of the Coronary Arteries

Autopsy Examination of Heart

General outline for Examination of Heart

Autopsy Examination of Coronary Arteries

Endomyocardial Biopsy Processing

Reporting of Endomyocardial Biopsy

Endomyocardial Biopsy-(Allograft Rejection)

Examination of Cardiac Valves

Cardiac Valve Disease

Aortic Valve Disease

Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Aortic Regurgitation

Mitral Valve Disease

Pulmonary Valve Disease 

Tricuspid Valve Disease 

Prosthetic and Bioprosthetic Cardiac Valves


Sudden Cardiac Death

Congestive Heart failure 

Congenital Heart Disease

Angina Pectoris

Ischemic Heart Disease

Assessment of Ischemic Myocardial Damage

Myocardial Infarction

Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease

Pathology of Aschoff Bodies or Nodules 


Giant Cell Myocarditis

Hypertensive Heart Disease

Pericardial Disease

Pericardial Effusion

Infective Endocarditis 

Cardiac Hemochromatosis

Cardiac Amyloidosis 

Histopathology reporting of Pericardial Specimen 

Heart Transplants - Pathological Examination 

ISHLT System for Grading Rejection 

Post -Operative Cardiac Pathology 

Perioperative Cardiac Pathology 

Primary Tumours of the Heart

Reporting of Cardiac Tumours 

Cardiac Myxoma 

Cardiac Rhabdomyoma

Papillary Fibroblastoma

Cardiac Fibroma 

Cardiac Lipoma 

Cardiac Hemangioma 

Cardiac Teratoma 

Mesothelioma of Atrioventricular Node (Cystic Tumour of Atrioventricular Node)

Purkinje Cell Tumour 

Cardiac Paraganglioma

Malignant Tumours of the Heart

Cardiac Lymphoma





Pathology Photo of the Day - A Broken Heart - Yes your heart can literally break !









Infectious Disease Online


Pathology Quiz Online 


Paediatric Pathology Online


Pancreatic Pathology Online




Endocrine Pathology Online


Eye Pathology Online


Ear Pathology Online


Cardiac Path Online


Pulmonary Pathology Online


Lung Tumour Online




Nutritional Pathology Online


Environmental Pathology Online


Soft Tissue Tumour Online


GI Path Online-India


Gallbladder Pathology Online


E-book - History of Medicine  


Microscope - Seeing the Unseen





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