Infection-induced panniculitis may result from a number of microbes including bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
Viruses have also been implicated as a cause.
Infectious agents and infestations can lead to lobular or mixed lobular and septal panniculitis.
This type of panniculitis can occur as a primary infection by direct inoculation of infectious microorganisms into the subcutaneous tissue, or secondarily via microbial hematogenous dissemination with subsequent infection of the subcutaneous tissue.
The various organisms include candidiasis, cryptococcus, mycetoma, actinomycosis, nocardiosis, chromomycosis, sporotrichosis and histoplasmosis, infections with Mycobacterium Marinum , Mycobacterium Ulcerans , M.fortuitum, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium Leprae (erythema nodosum leprosum) and Mycobacterium Avium Intracellulare .
Other bacterial organisms, bites of ticks and infective conditions like myasis, cysticercosis, sparganosis and infestations by certain helminths may also cause panniculitis.
Most cases of infection-induced panniculitis occur in patients who are immunosuppressed.
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