Cardiac Path Online

Pathology of Myocarditis

Dr Sampurna Roy MD




Myocarditis is characterized by myocardial inflammation (inflammation of the muscular layer) that result in injury to the cardiac myocytes.

An inflammatory infiltrate is present in the myocardium together with necrosis and degeneration of the myocytes.  

Clinical presentation:  Patients may remain asymptomatic or there may be abrupt onset of arrhythmia, congestive cardiac failure or sudden death.

Most patients recover quickly and without sequelae.

Causes of Myocarditis:

Related post: Infectious Disease Online

1)  Microbial infection: 

Bacteria- Stapylococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, diphtheria, tuberculosis, brucellosis, clostridia, meningococci.

Chlamydia- Psittacosis

Fungi- Candidiasis cryptococcosis histoplasmosis, actinomycosis , blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis aspergillosis.

Viruses (viral myocarditis is most common amongst the infectious causes)-   Coxsackievirus types A and B (specially Type B) , Adenovirus, Echovirus, Epstein Barr virus, Hepatitis C virus, Herpes Simplex Virus Infection, Measles, Influenza , Rubella Poliomyelitis virus, Human immunodeficiency virus , Mumps, Parvovirus B19 Infection ,Cytomegalovirus.  

Protozoa-  Chagas' Disease (Trypanosoma crusie) , toxoplasmosis , malaria, leishmaniasis.

Helminth- Trichinosis, schistosomiasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis.

Rickettsia-  Scrub Typhus, Q Fever, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.