- Consumption of aspirin and other nonsteroidal
- Chronic alcohol ingestion
- Alkaline or bile reflux (abnormal pyloric sphincter function,
previous surgical intervention).
- Glandular elongation and tortuosity
- Mucin depletion
- Hypercellularity of the gastric pits
- Foveolar hyperplasia
- Increased number of smooth muscle fibres in lamina propria.
- Villiform transformation of the mucosa.
- Regenerative (basophilic) glands with increased mitotic activity.
- Capillary congestion and vasodilation in superficial lamina propria.
- A few chronic inflammatory cells and occasional neutrophils.
- Usually there is no evidence of atrophy.
- Bile in the glands.
- Long standing bile reflux cases may be accompanied by erosions or
intestinal metaplasia (including all its subtypes).
Note : Reactive gastritis with erosions is the commonest cause of false
positive diagnosis of dysplasia or carcinoma in the stomach.