findings are in the lungs:
destruction and desquamation of the pseudocolumnar and columnar
submucosal edema and hyperemia.
- There may be
thrombus formation at the bronchiolar level.
- The acute
inflammation could be severe, as indicated by hemorrhagic
tracheobronchitis and desquamative bronchiolitis with necrosis of
the bronchiolar wall.
- Once necrosis
occurs there is infiltration by polymorphs and mononuclear cells.
- The histological
changes in influenza pneumonia included
- Interstitial edema
with inflammatory infiltrate,
proteinaceous exudation with membrane formation,
- Necrosis of the
pneumocytes with pyknotic nuclei into the alveolar spaces,
- Diffuse alveolar
damage with mainly mononuclear interstitial infiltration by
lymphocytes and histiocytes.
- During the late
stage, the following changes have been reported 1) organizing
diffuse alveolar damage, fibrosis, 2)Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia,
3)epithelial regeneration, and 4) squamous metaplasia were found.
- These changes are
in keeping with fibroproliferative phase of acute
respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and diffuse alveolar damage.
coinfections was found in a number of autopsy cases. The
most common bacteria found included
Staphylococcus aureus, community-associated methicillin-resistant
Other pathological changes noted in
Heart - Showed
myocarditis myofibril degeneration and interstitial lymphocytic
system (reactive hemophagocytosis).
(vascular thrombosis) -May involve coronary and infrarenal aorta,
and femoral and iliac veins with pulmonary thromboembolism.
associated with thrombosed arteries.
Micro and macrovesicular steatosis.
system: Viral infection-associated encephalopathy.
can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses
like influenza by:
- Covering your nose and mouth with a disposable tissue
or handkerchief when you cough or sneeze.
Wash your hands often with soap and water,
especially after you cough or sneeze.
- Try to avoid close contact with sick
- If you get sick with influenza, stay at
home and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.
Consult your physician if you think you have any of the symptoms.
To diagnose swine influenza A infection,
a respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the
first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to
be shedding virus).
Some patients, especially children, may
shed virus for 10 days or longer.
Identification as a swine flu influenza A
virus requires sending the specimen for laboratory testing.
history of Swine Flu
The World Health Organisation (WHO) confirmed human cases of swine flu in Mexico, the United States, Canada
Only Mexico has reported deaths from the
new strain. The number of cases confirmed by health officials worldwide
totaled 82,most of them in the United States and Mexico,
according to the WHO.
But hundreds more cases are under
examination, and Mexico has said 149 deaths may have resulted.
The World Health Organization
raised its global alert level on the spreading swine flu virus on
Monday 27th April 2009, but stopped short of declaring a global
United States advised Americans against most
and ordered stepped up border checks in neighboring states.
European Union health commissioner advised Europeans to avoid
nonessential travel both to Mexico and parts of the United States.
The suspected number of deaths rose to 149 in
Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak with nearly 2,000 people
believed to be infected.
The number of
U.S. cases doubled to 40, the result of further testing at a New
York City school, although none was
fatal. Other U.S.
cases have been reported in Ohio,
Kansas, Texas and
Worldwide there were 73 cases, including six in Canada, one in
and two in
The WHO raised the alert level to Phase 4,meaning there is
sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus causing
outbreaks in at least one country.
Its alert system was revised after
bird flu in
began to spread in 2004, and Monday was the first time it was raised
above Phase 3.
Putting an alert at Phases 4 or 5 signals that the virus is becoming
increasingly adept at spreading among humans. That move could lead
governments to set trade, travel and other restrictions aimed at
limiting the disease's spread.
The WHO's Phase 6 is the pandemic
phase, characterized by outbreaks in at least at least two regions
of the world.
History of Swine Flu (H1N1)
outbreak in India:
According to the latest report as many as 1900 people have
died due to swine flu. Total number of infected patients in India have gone upto
In West Bengal 23 patients have died due to the disease and the
total number of infected patients is 323.
(dated March 19th 2015)
Flu death continues to rise in India. Total number of deaths has
gone up to 774. According to the latest report nearly 13000 people
have been infected.
An eight year old
child died in B C Roy Hospital, Kolkata. 11 new cases have been
detected in last 24 hours. Now the total number of deaths in West
Bengal is 3. (dated 21st
Swine flu is rapidly spreading across India. Total number of cases
for H1N1 influenza virus is more than 11,000. 40 more cases of
deaths have been reported from various parts of the country. Total number of death due
to swine flu has gone upto 703.
(dated 19th February 2015 ).
affected are Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi and
Since January only
2 deaths have been reported in West Bengal. According to health
officials 6 new cases of H1N1 were reported in this state.
Nobody is in critical condition. Total number of positive cases in
the state is 42. There are no reports of death in last 24 hours.
Both central and local state goverments are taking extensive
measures to keep the situation under control.
In this post I have
highlighted some important facts about Swine Influenza (H1N1
Tuesday May 5, 2009:
continues to be free from swine flu infection, while five passengers
with suspected influenza A (H1N1) symptoms are quarantined.
With the World Health Organisation designating swine influenza
outbreak as a public health emergency of international concern,
India on Monday (27th April 2009)
put on alert all international airports and ports
for identifying persons with suspected infection who could be
arriving from countries affected.
Those travelling to affected areas have also been
advised to defer non-essential journeys. Instructions were issued to
track down people who arrived in India from Mexico, the U.S.,
Canada, New Zealand, Spain, France and the United Kingdom.
Keeping in view the global scenario, the government
is instituting a series of preventive action that includes
surveillance at ports and international airports. All
passengers coming to India from the affected areas will be
mandatorily screened for influenza symptoms while for others it will
The 21 airports in the country where screening is being done are:
Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bangalore, Calicut, Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore,
New Delhi, Varanasi, Goa, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Kolkata, Lucknow,
Mangalore, Mumbai, Nagpur, Pune, Srinagar, Tiruchirapalli and
Four labs -
National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) in Delhi.
National Institute of Virology (Pune), National Institute of Cholera
and Enteric Diseases (Kolkata) and Regional Medical Research Centre
(Dibrugarh) - have been put on high alert to test human samples for
Doctors clarified that there is no risk of the flu
from eating pork and pork products, including ham, salami and
sausages. Otherwise, it is advised that pork be cooked at
temperatures over 70 degrees - a level at which all viruses die. The medicine advised
is Tamiflu and Relenza.]
Prevention by vaccination plays an important
role. In addition to the prevention of pulmonary complications,
influenza vaccination can prevent other medical hazards like
myocardial infarction and stroke.
The greatest setback in the 2009 influenza
pandemic was that vaccine was not available in most countries.