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Pathology of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

Dr Sampurna Roy MD




Venezuelan equine encephalitis is encountered principally in Venezuela, Colombia, Central America, Mexico, and the southwestern United States.

Rodents, many other mammals, and birds are the reservoir.

Horses and humans have "dead-end" infections.

Vectors are mosquitoes.

This acute viral disease occurs throughout the year.

Clinical presentations:

Influenza-like manifestations, abrupt onset of severe headache, chills, fever, myalgia, retro-orbital pain, nausea and vomiting, conjunctival and pharyngeal injection.

Most cases are mild with symptoms lasting for 3 - 5 days.

Some cases have diphasic fever.

Central Nervous System involvement:

There is encephalitis with disorientation, convulsions, paralysis, coma and death.

In many cases convulsions are often seen in children.

Abortions and fetal deaths occur in pregnant women infected with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

Visit related posts: Alphaviruses causing Encephalitis; Eastern equine encephalitis viruses; Western equine encephalitis viruses.


Further reading:  

Pseudotyped viruses permit rapid detection of neutralizing antibodies in human and equine serum against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

Noncytopathic replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus replicons in Mammalian cells.

Inhibition of multiple strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by a pool of four short interfering RNAs.

Re-emergence of epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in South America. VEE Study Group.

Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis. In: Monath TP, ed. The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1989;203-32.  ;

Emergence of a new epidemic/epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in South America. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:5278-81 ;

Virological and serological studies of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in humans. J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:22-7.




Dr Sampurna Roy  MD

Consultant  Histopathologist (Kolkata - India)








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