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Pathology of Angiostrongyliasis

Dr Sampurna Roy MD           

 

                                                                                                                      

 

Angiostrongyliasis is infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (cerebral) or Angiostrongylus costaricensis (abdominal). Both are parasites of rats that accidentally infect humans.

 

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (the rat lungworm) was first discovered in 1935 by Chen in Rattus rattus, in Canton, China.

 

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis.

(Image courtesy: Dr Y Tsutsumi)

Image1 Image2 Image3  ; Image4 . (Dr Y Tsutsumi)

 

 

The rodent is the definitive host while infected mollusks, snails and crabs act as the intermediate hosts.

 

Humans are infected by the 3rd stage larvae, either by eating undercooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables.

 

It is a delicate nematode reported in Asia Pacific region most commonly in South-east Asia and has been reported from Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Sri Lanka.

 

The larvae migrate to the gray matter of the brain, where they molt before ultimately lodging in a pulmonary artery.

 

After maturation, the worms lay eggs in the lung that hatch in situ.

 

Larvae are coughed up, swallowed, and passed in the faeces.

 

The life cycle is completed when larvae infect snails, which in turn are eaten by humans.

 

Migrating infective larvae or young adult worms die in and around blood vessels and arteries in the brain and provoke an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, with a low mortality (less than 1%).

 

The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of A. cantonensis in cerebrospinal fluid.

A. costaricensis, is found exclusively in Central America, infects the mesenteric veins of rats near the caecum, where it deposits eggs.

After hatching, larvae migrate to the faecal stream, pass with the faeces, and infect snails or slugs.

Infective larvae emerge from the snails or slugs on the slime trail.

Humans become infected by eating material contaminated with the slime trail.

Worms reach maturity in the human host and produce viable progeny.

Large nodules composed of scar tissue, eggs, and larvae cause lower right quadrant pain.

Surgical excision of the nodules, together with the appendix, relieves the symptoms.

Eosinophils in the cerebral spinal fluid suggest the diagnosis.

Simple analgesia is sufficient for mild cases. Treatment of those with severe symptoms remains controversial. Glucocorticoids, lumbar puncture to reduce intercranial pressure and antihelminthic agents have been used.

Visit: Visceral Larva Migrans ; Cutaneous larva migrans ; Strongyloidiasis.

 

Further reading:

Characterization of Angiostrongylus cantonensis excretory-secretory proteins as potential diagnostic targets.

Worms, slugs and humans: the medical and popular construction of an emerging infectious disease.

How Can Clinicians Ensure the Diagnosis of Meningitic Angiostrongyliasis?

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis with involvement of liver histopathologically confirmed: a case report.

First provincial survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guangdong Province, China.

Epidemic status of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Hainan island, China.

Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis: an update.

Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis: a case with severe evolution.

Necrotic eosinophilic angiitis with ileal perforation and peritonitis secondary to abdominal angiostrongyliasis.

 

 

 

Dr Sampurna Roy  MD

Consultant  Histopathologist (Kolkata - India)


 

 

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