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Cutaneous Infections and Infestations:

Mycoses and Algal Infections

Dr Sampurna Roy MD             

 

Fungi are an important cause of dermatological disease.

Visit: Cutaneous Infections and Infestations

Fungal identification:

The PAS stain (Periodic Acid-Schiff) , sometimes combined with diastase digestion, is most frequestly used.

It stains the cell walls of fungi a purple colour of varying intensity.

The silver methenamine stain, usually Grocott’s modification, is a reliable method of detecting fungi: It stains them black against a green background.

It is more reliable than the PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) stain for detecting degenerate fungal elements and the rare animal pathogens among the aquatic fungi, although it may be less  reliable with zygomycetes.

Cryptococcus neoformans may be stained with the mucicarmine stain or a combined alcian blue-PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff) stain, which shows the cell wall and capsule in contrasting colors.

It is usually doubly refractile under polarized light.

Calcoflour white can be used to stain frozen or paraffin sections as well as tissue smears.

The sections must be viewed with a  fluorescence microscope.

Certain fungi are even autoflourescent when a section stained with hematoxylin and eosin is exposed to ultraviolet light.

These include  Blastomyces , Cryptococcus , Candida , Aspergillus Coccidioides and occasionally Histoplasma.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are now being used to identify specific species of fungi, including dermatophytes.

Superficial filamentous infections:     

Dermatophytoses

Yeast infections:                                             

Candidosis (candidiasis)

Cryptococcosis

Pityriasis versicolor

Pityrosporum folliculitis                        

Trichosporonosis and white piedra

Systemic mycoses:                                         

Blastomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis

Paracoccidioidomycosis

Histoplasmosis

Infection by dematiaceous fungi:  

Chromomycosis

Phaeohyphomycosis

Sporotrichosis

Tinea nigra  

Mycetoma and morphologically similar conditions:

Mycetoma

Nocardiosis

Actinomycosis

Botryomycosis

Zygomycosis:

 

                                                                                           

 


 

 

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