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The endocrine, or ductless, glands are so called because they secrete physiologically active substances called hormones directly into the blood stream.

The word  "endocrine" derives from a Greek word meaning "I separate within", and is to be contrasted with "exocrine" which refers to glands whose secretion is delivered to the outside or into the lumen of the alimentary tract or that of the respiratory tract (the salivary glands, gastric glands, and mucous glands, as well as the cutaneous sweat glands, are all exocrine).  

The word "hormone", introduced by Starling in 1905, is derived from a Greek word meaning "I excite or arouse" and was first used in reference to secretion and gastrin.

Physiological role of the endocrines is to achieve,Starling’s word (1905) ’the chemical correlation of the functions of the body’.

The endocrine together with the central and autonomic nervous system, from the great ordinating systems which regulate body functions.

They receive information, interpret and integrate it, and initiate responses, via nerve and bloodstream, to arouse the bodily activities most appropriate to the needs of the moment.

The most important Endocrine Glands include:

1. The hypothalamus,

2. The anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis). The posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis).

3. The islets of Langerhans in the Pancreas

4. The adrenal cortex and medulla

5. The thyroid

6. The parathyroids and kidney

7. The ovary and testis.


I have divided the updated section on Endocrine Pathology Online as follows:

1st section: Paraganglioma-Online including lesions of adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla.

2nd section: Pancreatic Pathology Online - There are links to a range of neoplastic lesions of Pancreas in this page.

The entire chapter of Pancreatic Pathology Online is in the website Surgical

3rd section: Selected topics on Thyroid and Parathyroid lesions.

Other new topics on endocrine pathology will be added gradually.
















































Dr Sampurna Roy  MD

Consultant  Histopathologist (Kolkata - India)



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