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Pathology of Salmonellosis (Gastroenteritis and Septicemia)

 

Dr Sampurna Roy MD

                               

                                                                                                                      

 

The genus salmonella comprises a large, heterogenous group of motile gram-negative bacilli that infect many animals and man.

As a group, they are enteroinvasive and enteropathogenic and cause enteric fevers.

Three species, associated with three distinct clinical entities, are identified; namely Salmonella enteritidis (salmonella enteritis), Salmonella choleraesuis (salmonella septicemia) and Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever).

Visit related post: Pathology of Typhoid Fever

Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella choleraesuis are found in wide range of animals, including reptiles, birds, and mammals.

The only natural reservoir of Salmonella typhi is man.

Salmonella Enteritidis:

Salmonella Enteritidis is a major cause of foodborne disease worldwide.

Gastroenteritis, caused by S. enteritidis, is an acute, self-limited infection of the small bowel, lasting 2 to 5 days.

Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.

Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, probably caused by an enterotoxin similar to that of E. coli, can be a serious  and even fatal complication in the very young and the very old.

Organisms are isolated from stools for several weeks, but chronic infection is rare.

Salmonella Septicemia:

Septicemia, usually caused by S. choleraesuis, is characterized by prolonged fever and anemia.

Focal suppurative lesions in may tissues and organs include osteomyelitis, pneumonia, pulmonary abscess, meningitis, and endocarditis.

Visit : Infective Endocarditis ; Bronchopneumonia

Old age, systemic lupus erythematosus, malignancies, and immunodeficiency were common in adult patients with nontyphoid Salmonella bacteremia.

There are no gastrointestinal symptoms and the organisms are not cultured from the stools.

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Further reading:

Invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease: an emerging  and neglected tropical disease in Africa

Literature review and clinical presentation of cervical spondylitis due to salmonella enteritidis in immunocompetent.

An Association of Genotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns among Salmonella Isolates from Pigs and Humans in Taiwan.

Emergence and clonal dissemination of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causing salmonellosis in Mauritius.

Illegal use of nitrofurans in food animals: contribution to human  salmonellosis?

Phage typing of Salmonella enteritidis isolated from clinical, food, and poultry samples in Chile.

Emergence, Distribution, and Molecular and Phenotypic Characteristics of Salmonella enterica Serotype 4,5,12:i:

Rapid Discrimination of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi from Other Serovars by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

Ultra-Fast and Sensitive Detection of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Using Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence ("MAMEF")

 

 

 

Dr Sampurna Roy  MD

Consultant  Histopathologist (Kolkata - India)

 


 

 

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